Triggering a failover when running out of credits on db.t2

Since 3 years ago, RDS offers the option of running a MySQL database using the T2 instance type, currently from db.t2.micro to db.t2.large. These are low-cost standard instances that provide a baseline level of CPU performance – according to the size — with the ability to burst above the baseline using a credit approach.

You can find more information on the RDS Burst Capable Current Generation (db.t2) here and on CPU credits here.

What happens when you run out of credits?

There are two metrics you should monitor in CloudWatch, the CpuCreditUsage and the CpuCreditBalance. When your CpuCreditBalance approaches zero, your CPU usage is going to be capped and you will start having issues on your database.

It is usually better to have some alarms in place to prevent that, either checking for a minimum number of credits or spotting a significant drop in a time interval. But what can you do when you hit the bottom and your instance remains at the baseline performance level?

How to recover from a zero credit scenario?

The most obvious approach is to increase the instance class (for example from db.t2.medium to db.t2.large) or switch to a different instance type, for example a db.m4 or db.c3 instance. But it might not be the best approach when your end users are suffering: if you are running a Multi-AZ database in production, this is likely not the fastest option to recover, as it first requires a change of instance type on the passive master and then a failover to the new master.

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You can instead try a simple reboot with failover: the credit you see on CloudWatch is based on current active host and usually your passive master has still credits available as it is usually less loaded than the master one. As for the sceenshot above, you might gain 80 credits without any cost and with a simple DNS change that minimizes the downtime.

Do I still need to change the instance class?

Yes. Performing a reboot with failover is simply a way to reduce your recovery time when having issues related to the capped CPUs and gain some time. It is not a long term solution as you will most likely run out of credits again if you do not change your instance class soon.

To summarize, triggering a failover on a Multi-AZ RDS running on T2 is usually a faster way to gain credits than modifying immediately the instance class.